The crossover flap ties right under the armpit. Extant robes are generously cut at the armpit, so this isn’t as high as it might be on, say, a T-shirt, but it’s clearly in the chest region, not near the waist.

The crossover is straight. The current Mongolian crossover, which curves up to attach near the throat before slanting down to the attachment point, is a later invention.

The inner flap is a half-width, not a full width. Most reconstruction patterns make the inner front flap the full width of the garment, but from what I can tell of the few extant robes that show details of the flap layout, the inner front flap is only half-width. This is the same way traditional Chinese robes and modern Mongolian deels are cut. It gives enough overlap to prevent the garment from flapping open when the wearer walks, but reduces the buildup of layers the wearer would have to deal with when they put on two or three robes at a time.

The robe can cross left to right or right to left. I haven’t analyzed whether a given direction is more common in one area than another, but it doesn’t appear to be significant to the wearers.

The collar is depicted as lying flat, although the collars on extant robes are cut small enough that they look like they would stand up against the neck at least partway.


Trousers are shown in illustrations so rarely that I suspect the Ilkhanids considered them a boring, functional garment unworthy of depiction. Even when someone wears a robe short enough to come just to the tops of the boots, illustrators would rather make the bottom of the robe billow out like full trousers than show trousers.


The toe is pointed, but not curled. Curled toes are a later invention. A poulaine with a modest point is a better reproduction of the basic shoe shape than any of the “Mongolian” shoes on the market.

In at least one illustration, the back of the heel of a low shoe rises a couple of inches above the shoe, much like a poulaine.

In illustrations, shoes are almost universally black. Reality, or artistic license? I have no idea.